According to the Nathan World Map of Natural Hazards, my region is prone to several different hazards. I live in close proximity to a tropical cyclone.
Page 43 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Its Causes, Effects, and Distribution. The National Academies Press. It also contains a summary of U. Historical shoreline changes along the coasts of the United States range from highly erosional to accretional. Superimposed on these Tong-term trends, however, can be rapid, extreme erosion caused by coastal storms from which the shore may or may not recover.
In addition, the high likelihood of significant increases in sea level also has the potential to affect future shore erosion trends National Research Council, a.
A quantitative understanding of these short- and long-term shoreline changes is essential for the establishment of rational poli- cies to regulate development in the coastal zone.
Shoreline changes can be due to natural causes or they can be human-induced. Beaches can change on various time scales from short-duration, dramatic changes to slow, almost imperceptible evolution that over time yields significant displacements.
An important part of the FEMA program implementation is determination of the long-term trend of shoreline change. Unfortunately, storm-induced short-term beach variations can be so large that they may mask Tong-term trends.
Another complicating factor is that at some locations the shoreline change trend rate itself has changed during the past several decades; quite often these changes are human-induced. Table summarizes the possible natural contributions to shoreline change. Beaches are composed of loose sed- iment particles, ranging in grain size from fine sand to large cow blest Pocket beaches form between erosion-resistant headlands and are usually quite small.
Pocket beaches are common along the rocky coast of New England and the cliffed coasts of California and Oregon. Because the sediment that constitutes pocket beaches is trapped by adjacent headlands, these beaches respond to prevailing waves; there is little movement of littoral sediment to or from adjacent beaches.
Mainland also called strandplain beaches are the most common type along the Pacific coast and on the Great Lakes, where the adjacent bluffs often are over feet high. These beaches develop anywhere that ample sediment supply allows for accumulation along the shoreline.
The beach usually is derived from the adjacent erodible chit material. Mainland beaches backed by high eroding bluffs are well displayed along outer Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Elsewhere, mainland beaches can be quite low, such as those found in northern New Jersey and Delaware and along parts of the Gulf coastal plain.
The mainland beaches of Holly Beach, Louisiana, are particularly Tow lying and susceptible to storm flooding. Slope instability is largely controlled by the local geology, water level, wave action, and ground water movement.
Bluff failure, concomitant loss of land, and sometimes houses are a continual prob- lem along outer Cape Cod Leatherman,the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay Leatherman,and parts of the California coast e.
Barrier beaches are perhaps the most dynamic coastal land masses along the open-ocean coast. These land forms predominate the U. Barrier beaches can extend continuously for 10 to miles, inter- rupted only by tide] inlets.
Physically separated barrier islands often are linked by the longshore sediment transport system, so that an engineering action taken in any one beach area can have major im- pacts on adjacent downdrift beaches. For example, the south shore of Long Island, New York, is considered a single littoral cell.
Barrier islands are typically Tow lying, flood prone, and underlain by easily erodible, unconsolidated sediments.
Thus, these land forms are especially difficult to develop because they are so dynamic. Their morphology is the result of antecedent conditions and sediment supply as well as the forces of waves, tides, currents, and winds. A discussion of the formation and processes of beach change follows.CAUSES, EFFECTS, AND DISTRIBUTION 37 York and northern New Jersey serve as playgrounds for the 15 mil- lion people in the greater New York metropolitan area.
The New York to Washington metropolitan corridor exerts heavy demands for coastal recreational opportunities. Hurricane Sandy was unprecedented in impact on the urban cluster comprising New York City and the surrounding metro areas, in addition to numerous coastal communities along the New Jersey and New.
There is an often-repeated saying, "earthquakes don't kill people, buildings do." Although you can’t control the seismic hazard in the community where you live or work, you can influence the most important factor in saving lives and reducing losses from an earthquake: the adoption and enforcement of up-to-date building codes.
This caused a greater area of wind damage, by the time she reached New York she was too moderate to do damage equivalent to Sandy’s.
The hurricane that swamped New York City in was featured in the History Channel video: “ New York City Hurricane ” which was in essence a warning, often repeated, that there was more to come and we. The magnitude of damage caused by hurricane Sandy was mostly due to the fact that New Jersey was unprepared for such a storm.
Protecting our beaches is something that we failed with tremendously in that case. Modern Public Administration in the Post-9/11 World No one event has had more of an effect on modern American life than the attacks of 9/ The aftermath of terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C.
altered everything from attitudes about patriotism to how planes are boarded.