Sea sponges

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Sea sponges

Sea sponges

Sponge with calcium carbonate skeleton [22] Skeleton In zoology a skeleton is Sea sponges fairly rigid structure of an animal, irrespective of whether it has joints and irrespective of whether it is biomineralized. The mesohyl functions as an endoskeleton in most sponges, and is the only skeleton in soft sponges that encrust hard surfaces such as rocks.

More commonly the mesohyl is stiffened by mineral spiculesby spongin fibers or both. Spicules may be made of silica or calcium carbonate, and vary in shape from simple rods to three-dimensional "stars" with up to six rays.

Spicules are produced by sclerocyte cells, [22] and may be separate, connected by joints, or fused. For example, sclerosponges "hard sponges" have massive calcium carbonate exoskeletons over which the organic matter forms a thin layer with choanocyte chambers in pits in the mineral.

These exoskeletons are secreted by the pinacocytes that form the animals' skins. A few species can contract their whole bodies, and many can close their oscula and ostia.

Juveniles drift or swim freely, while adults are stationary.

Sea sponges

They filter food particles out of the water flowing through them. These particles are consumed by pinacocytes or by archaeocytes which partially extrude themselves through the walls of the ostia. Bacteria-sized particles, below 0.

At least one species of sponge has internal fibers that function as tracks for use by nutrient-carrying archaeocytes, [22] and these tracks also move inert objects. Archeocytes remove mineral particles that threaten to block the ostia, transport them through the mesohyl and generally dump them into the outgoing water current, although some species incorporate them into their Sea sponges.

So far only species have been discovered. However, the genus Chondrocladia uses a highly modified water flow system to inflate balloon-like structures that are used for capturing prey.

Many marine species host other photosynthesizing organisms, most commonly cyanobacteria but in some cases dinoflagellates. However, they reject grafts from other species but accept them from other members of their own species.

In a few marine species, gray cells play the leading role in rejection of foreign material. When invaded, they produce a chemical that stops movement of other cells in the affected area, thus preventing the intruder from using the sponge's internal transport systems.

If the intrusion persists, the grey cells concentrate in the area and release toxins that kill all cells in the area. The "immune" system can stay in this activated state for up to three weeks.

Sponge - Wikipedia

Fragments of sponges may be detached by currents or waves. They use the mobility of their pinacocytes and choanocytes and reshaping of the mesohyl to re-attach themselves to a suitable surface and then rebuild themselves as small but functional sponges over the course of several days.

The same capabilities enable sponges that have been squeezed through a fine cloth to regenerate. Spongocytes make gemmules by wrapping shells of spongin, often reinforced with spicules, round clusters of archeocytes that are full of nutrients.

Gemmules from the same species but different individuals can join forces to form one sponge. Sperm are produced by choanocytes or entire choanocyte chambers that sink into the mesohyl and form spermatic cysts while eggs are formed by transformation of archeocytesor of choanocytes in some species.

Each egg generally acquires a yolk by consuming "nurse cells". During spawning, sperm burst out of their cysts and are expelled via the osculum.

If they contact another sponge of the same species, the water flow carries them to choanocytes that engulf them but, instead of digesting them, metamorphose to an ameboid form and carry the sperm through the mesohyl to eggs, which in most cases engulf the carrier and its cargo. There are four types of larvae, but all are balls of cells with an outer layer of cells whose flagellae or cilia enable the larvae to move.

After swimming for a few days the larvae sink and crawl until they find a place to settle. Most of the cells transform into archeocytes and then into the types appropriate for their locations in a miniature adult sponge.

The larvae then leave their parents' bodies. Some calcified demosponges grow by only 0. Some sponges start sexual reproduction when only a few weeks old, while others wait until they are several years old. However, most species have the ability to perform movements that are coordinated all over their bodies, mainly contractions of the pinacocytessqueezing the water channels and thus expelling excess sediment and other substances that may cause blockages.

Some species can contract the osculum independently of the rest of the body. Sponges may also contract in order to reduce the area that is vulnerable to attack by predators.

In cases where two sponges are fused, for example if there is a large but still unseparated bud, these contraction waves slowly become coordinated in both of the " Siamese twins ". The coordinating mechanism is unknown, but may involve chemicals similar to neurotransmitters.Bulk Apothecary is where to buy Dead Sea Sponges.

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