Psychosocial personality disorders Definition A psychosocial disorder is a mental illness caused or influenced by life experiences, as well as maladjusted cognitive and behavioral processes. Description The term psychosocial refers to the psychological and social factors that influence mental health. Social influences such as peer pressureparental support, cultural and religious background, socioeconomic status, and interpersonal relationships all help to shape personality and influence psychological makeup. Children and adolescents with psychosocial disorders frequently have difficulty functioning in social situations and may have problems effectively communicating with others.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract This paper comments on the role and emergence of the biopsychosocial model in modern medical literature and health care settings. The evolution of the biopsychosocial model and its close association with modern pain theory is also examined.
This paper seeks to discuss the place of this model with respect to the management of hypothyroidism. This discussion represents a forerunner to a randomised control trial that will seek to investigate the effect of a biopsychosocial-based treatment regime on hypothyroidism.
Biopsychosocial model, hypothyroidism, treatment, levothyroxine, thyroid. What is the Biopsychosocial model?
The biopsychosocial model depicts a health care concept that has evolved in close association with current pain Role of biopsychosocial factors in health and illness. It has sought coexistence with the dominant biomedical model of health care, which describes 'disease' as a failure of or within the soma, resulting from infection, injury or inheritance [ 1 ].
The biomedical model has its roots in the Cartesian division between mind and body [ 2 ]. InEngel described a crisis that modern medicine and psychiatry were facing. Disease, from a biomedical perspective was described in somatic parameters alone, there was little or no room for psychological, social and behavioural dimensions of illness within this model.
This made adherence to this framework very difficult. There were somatic and mental disorders that simply did not fit the biomedical model, and hence it was no longer sufficient for the scientific and social responsibilities of either medicine or psychiatry [ 23 ].
Engel set out to develop a new framework that would account for the biological, psychological and social dimensions of illness and disease.
This represented the development of the biopsychosocial model [ 2 ]. The biopsychosocial model states that ill health and disease are the result of an interaction between biological, psychological and social factors. The biopsychosocial model makes the distinction between pathophysiological processes that cause disease and the client's perception of their health and the effects on it, called the illness [ 6 ].
It seeks to build upon the biomedical model. Biological indices are still held in high regard, however, they represent only one of the defining factors for the diagnosis and management of disease under a biopsychosocial framework [ 2 ].
The biopsychosocial model describes psychological and social effects of disease risk, prevention, treatment compliance, morbidity, quality of life and survival [ 4 ]. Situations paradoxically arise in medicine in which a person who feels well is described biochemically, as having 'disease'.
In contrast, a client's laboratory findings may reveal no 'disease', however the client still feels unwell. The biopsychosocial model provides a conceptual framework for dealing with such situations [ 2 ]. Of late, a great deal of attention has been given to the factors involved in chronic pain and depression.
It is research like this that has highlighted the need for a paradigm such as the biopsychosocial model in the management of conditions other than chronic pain.
Following the success of various psychological and cognitive interventions in the reduction of somatic signs and symptoms associated with certain conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome IBSnon-cardiac chest pain, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis RAresearch has set out to explore the role of psychosocial factors in the disease process [ 378 ].
The biopsychosocial model avoids a strong 'disease' focus and seeks to address the client and his or her illness [ 9 ]. Clients are helped not only with biological disruptions, but also with their capacity to deal with being ill. It is proposed that this approach may be of benefit in reducing the frequency of clinic visits, hospitalisations, laboratory investigations and use of pharmacological agents.
Changes in ones ability to cope, inherent belief systems as well as behavioural and social processes associated with being ill may also be improved through the implementation of this model [ 10 ]. The Evolution of the Biopsychosocial Model The biopsychosocial model represents the evolution of the biomedical model, and aligns favourably with recent ideas in pain theory and pathophysiology [ 3 ].
Early theories concerning pain were consistent with the specificity theory, which described pain as the result of noxious stimuli or somatic pathology alone [ 11 ]. There was little or no place for the influence of psychological or social factors within these original theories [ 3 ].
The mid nineteen sixties saw the emergence of the gate control theory of pain [ 1112 ]. The theory proposed by Melzack and Wall, represented a more concise model that took into account the multidimensional nature of pain, allowing for physiological factors and the role of the brain in the processing of nociceptive stimuli.The biopsychosocial model represents the latest ideas in chronic illness management and compliments recent ideas in pain theory.
It states that in order to rationalise and contend with chronic conditions, one must take into account the influence of biological, psychological and social factors. These are the most common situations in which police encounter people with mental illness.
It is important to realize, though, that when police officers handle some of these situations they do not always realize that mental illness is involved (such as a shoplifting or a disorderly person).
Filling a key need, this practical volume provides state-of-the-art approaches and tools for evaluating both health-related behaviors and psychosocial aspects of medical illness.
Many insurances require you to write a Biopsychosocial Assessment for new clients. A Biopsychosocial includes information that you gather from . biological factors of health and disease are worthy of study and practice.
He argued that psychological and social factors influence biological functioning and play a role in health and illness also. social system examines the cultural, environmental and thmilial on the expression and e*perience of the illness 3. The importanee ot the biopsychosocial modei.