Open bibliography in its own window Modern attitudes toward homosexuality have religious, legal, and medical underpinnings.
Organismic trait designed to solve an ancestral problem s. Shows complexity, special "design", functionality Adaptation that has been "re-purposed" to solve a different adaptive problem.
Williams suggested that an "adaptation is a special and onerous concept that should only be used where it is really necessary.
Obligate and facultative adaptations[ edit ] A question that may be asked about an adaptation is whether it is generally obligate relatively robust in the face of typical environmental variation or facultative sensitive to typical environmental variation.
By contrast, facultative adaptations are somewhat like "if-then" statements. For example, adult attachment style seems particularly sensitive to early childhood experiences. As adults, the propensity to develop close, trusting bonds with others is dependent on whether early childhood caregivers could be trusted to provide reliable assistance and attention.
The adaptation for skin to tan is conditional to exposure to sunlight; this is an example of another facultative adaptation.
When a psychological adaptation is facultative, evolutionary psychologists concern themselves with how developmental and environmental inputs influence the expression of the adaptation. Cultural universal Evolutionary psychologists hold that behaviors or traits that occur universally in all cultures are good candidates for evolutionary adaptations.
Basic gender differences, such as greater eagerness for sex among men and greater coyness among women,  are explained as sexually dimorphic psychological adaptations that reflect the different reproductive strategies of males and females.
Human evolution Evolutionary psychology argues that to properly understand the functions of the brain, one must understand the properties of the environment in which the brain evolved.
That environment is often referred to as the "environment of evolutionary adaptedness". More specifically, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness is defined as the set of historically recurring selection pressures that formed a given adaptation, as well as those aspects of the environment that were necessary for the proper development and functioning of the adaptation.
Humans, comprising the genus Homoappeared between 1. Because the Pleistocene ended a mere 12, years ago, most human adaptations either newly evolved during the Pleistocene, or were maintained by stabilizing selection during the Pleistocene. Evolutionary psychology therefore proposes that the majority of human psychological mechanisms are adapted to reproductive problems frequently encountered in Pleistocene environments.
The environment of evolutionary adaptedness is significantly different from modern society.
Because humans are mostly adapted to Pleistocene environments, psychological mechanisms sometimes exhibit "mismatches" to the modern environment. One example is the fact that although about 10, people are killed with guns in the US annually,  whereas spiders and snakes kill only a handful, people nonetheless learn to fear spiders and snakes about as easily as they do a pointed gun, and more easily than an unpointed gun, rabbits or flowers.
There is thus a mismatch between humans' evolved fear-learning psychology and the modern environment. The term was coined by Niko Tinbergen to refer to non-human animal behavior, but psychologist Deirdre Barrett said that supernormal stimulation governs the behavior of humans as powerfully as that of other animals.Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection in human evolution.
Adaptationist . Papers & Publications. Selected Publications (with PDF) (H-index=62; total citations=35,)Lyubomirsky, S. (). The myths of happiness: What should make you happy, but doesn’t, what shouldn’t make you happy, but heartoftexashop.com York: Penguin Press.
Visit the book’s website. Download the book’s full set of references. Table 1. Definitions of Key Terms Gender Typing--The process of developing the behaviors, thoughts, and emotions associated with a particular gender.. Depression--A psychiatric disorder characterized by an inability to concentrate, insomnia, loss of appetite, anhedonia, feelings of extreme sadness, guilt, helplessness and hopelessness, and thoughts of death.
This review describes the occurrence of depression in children, symptoms, causes based on the Cognitive Model, Parent x Child Model of Socialization and Tripartite Model of Depression and Anxiety.
The study performed based on the latter model showed existence of differentiation between depression. Project Implicit Publications. Enter your email address in the request paper field and a copy should arrive in your mailbox within a few minutes.
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