Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from until its independence in The Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between and
When soldiers of the Bengal army mutinied in Meerut on May 10,tension had been growing for some time. The immediate cause of military disaffection was the deployment of the new breech-loading Enfield rifle, the cartridge of which… Background To regard the rebellion merely as a sepoy mutiny is to underestimate the indian mutiny 1857 essay help causes leading to it.
The British increasingly used a variety of tactics to usurp control of the Hindu princely states that were under what were called subsidiary alliances with the British. Everywhere the old Indian aristocracy was being replaced by British officials.
One notable British technique was called the doctrine of lapsefirst perpetrated by Lord Dalhousie in the late s.
It involved the British prohibiting a Hindu ruler without a natural heir from adopting a successor and, after the ruler died or abdicatedannexing his land. To those problems may be added the growing discontent of the Brahmansmany of whom had been dispossessed of their revenues or had lost lucrative positions.
Another serious concern was the increasing pace of Westernizationby which Hindu society was being affected by the introduction of Western ideas. Missionaries were challenging the religious beliefs of the Hindus.
The humanitarian movement led to reforms that went deeper than the political superstructure. During his tenure as governor-general of India —56Lord Dalhousie made efforts toward emancipating women and had introduced a bill to remove all legal obstacles to the remarriage of Hindu widows.
Converts to Christianity were to share with their Hindu relatives in the property of the family estate. There was a widespread belief that the British aimed at breaking down the caste system. The introduction of Western methods of education was a direct challenge to orthodoxy, both Hindu and Muslim.
The mutiny broke out in the Bengal army because it was only in the military sphere that Indians were organized. The pretext for revolt was the introduction of the new Enfield rifle. To load it, the sepoys had to bite off the ends of lubricated cartridges. There is no conclusive evidence that either of these materials was actually used on any of the cartridges in question.
However, the perception that the cartridges were tainted added to the larger suspicion that the British were trying to undermine Indian traditional society. For their part, the British did not pay enough attention to the growing level of sepoy discontent.
The rebellion In late March a sepoy named Mangal Pandey attacked British officers at the military garrison in Barrackpore. He was arrested and then executed by the British in early April. Later in April sepoy troopers at Meerut refused the Enfield cartridges, and, as punishment, they were given long prison terms, fettered, and put in jail.
This punishment incensed their comrades, who rose on May 10, shot their British officers, and marched to Delhiwhere there were no European troops.
The seizure of Delhi provided a focus and set the pattern for the whole mutiny, which then spread throughout northern India.
With the exception of the Mughal emperor and his sons and Nana Sahibthe adopted son of the deposed Maratha peshwa, none of the important Indian princes joined the mutineers.
Peace was officially declared on July 8, A grim feature of the mutiny was the ferocity that accompanied it. The mutineers commonly shot their British officers on rising and were responsible for massacres at Delhi, Kanpur, and elsewhere.
The murder of women and children enraged the British, but in fact some British officers began to take severe measures before they knew that any such murders had occurred. In the end the reprisals far outweighed the original excesses.
Hundreds of sepoys were bayoneted or fired from cannons in a frenzy of British vengeance though some British officers did protest the bloodshed. Aftermath The immediate result of the mutiny was a general housecleaning of the Indian administration.
The East India Company was abolished in favour of the direct rule of India by the British government.
The Indian Mutiny of The intricate and tumultuous relationship between Britain and India has spanned the course of hundreds of years. Contact between Britain and India and been steadily increasing since the 17th century. The Indian Rebellion of is also called the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, North India's First War of Independence or North India's first struggle for heartoftexashop.com began on 10 May at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army. Sepoys in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers. Event. Date. Global Population Statistics. The Spanish “Reconquest” of the Iberian peninsula ends in January with the conquest of Granada, the last city held by the Moors.
In concrete terms, this did not mean much, but it introduced a more personal note into the government and removed the unimaginative commercialism that had lingered in the Court of Directors. The Indian army was also extensively reorganized. Another significant result of the mutiny was the beginning of the policy of consultation with Indians.
The Legislative Council of had contained only Europeans and had arrogantly behaved as if it were a full-fledged parliament. It was widely felt that a lack of communication with Indian opinion had helped to precipitate the crisis.
Accordingly, the new council of was given an Indian-nominated element. The educational and public works programs roads, railways, telegraphs, and irrigation continued with little interruption; in fact, some were stimulated by the thought of their value for the transport of troops in a crisis.
But insensitive British-imposed social measures that affected Hindu society came to an abrupt end.The British Raj (/ r ɑː dʒ /; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between and The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India.
The region under British control was commonly called British India or simply India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United.
Event. Date. Global Population Statistics. The Spanish “Reconquest” of the Iberian peninsula ends in January with the conquest of Granada, the last city held by the Moors. The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, heartoftexashop.com is evidence of teaching as far back as , making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation.
It grew rapidly from when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. The Indian Rebellion of is also called the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, North India's First War of Independence or North India's first struggle for heartoftexashop.com began on 10 May at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army.
Sepoys in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers. News, history and books about royalty in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.
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