That same year, more than one-third of Peru's courts lacked a justice of the peace, because of Shining Path intimidation. Union leaders and military officials were also assassinated throughout the s. By the early s, some parts of the country were under the control of the insurgents, in territories known as "zonas liberadas" "liberated zones"where inhabitants lived under the rule of these groups and paid them taxes.
Early republics[ edit ] Bonifacio's Tagalog Republic[ edit ] Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office.
Kataas-taasang Pangulo of the Katipunana secret revolutionary society. Its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils.
When the Katipunan started an open revolt against the Spanish colonial government in AugustBonifacio transformed the society into a revolutionary government with him as its head. While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacio's government was also known as the Tagalog Republic Spanish: Although the word Tagalog refers to the Tagalog peoplea specific ethno-linguistic group, Bonifacio used it to denote all non-Spanish peoples of the Philippines in place of Filipinoswhich had colonial origins.
Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sacay and Miguel Malvar should also be included. Aguinaldo therefore signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato and went into exile in Hong Kong at the end of Navy vessel and renewed the revolution. He formed a dictatorial government on May 24, and issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12, On June 23,Aguinaldo transformed his dictatorial government into a revolutionary government.
Consequently, this government is also called the Malolos Republic. The First Philippine Republic was short-lived and never internationally recognized.
The Philippines was transferred from Spanish to American control by the Treaty of Paris ofsigned in December of that year. His government effectively ceased to exist on April 1,after he pledged allegiance to the United States following his capture by U.
The current government of the Republic of the Philippinesconsiders Emilio Aguinaldo to be the first President of the Philippines. They are both considered by some scholars as "unofficial presidents", and along with Bonifacio, are not recognized as Presidents by the government. Quezon was elected the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippineswhich had been established, still under United States sovereignty, under a constitution ratified on 14 May of that year.
During its first five years, the President could serve for an unrenewable six-year term. It was later amended in to limit a President to serving no more than two four-year terms. Laurel became President under a constitution imposed by the Japanese occupation. Laurel, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippineshad been instructed to remain in the City of Manila by President Quezon, who withdrew to Corregidor and then to the United States to establish a government in exile in the United States.
After the combined American and Filipino forces liberated the islands inLaurel officially dissolved the republic on August 17, It remained in effect after the United States recognized the sovereignty of the Republic of the Philippines as a separate self-governing nation on July 4, Marcos introduced a parliamentary-style government.
Marcos instituted himself as Prime Minister while serving as President in This Constitution was in effect until the People Power Revolution of toppled Marcos's year authoritarian regime and replaced him with Corazon C.
Fifth Republic[ edit ] Ruling by decree during the early part of her tenure and as a president installed by revolutionary means, President Corazon Aquino issued Proclamation No.
Often called the "Freedom Constitution," the proclamation retained only parts of the Constitution that were essential for a return to democratic rule, such as the bill of rights.
This constitution was superseded on February 2, by the present constitution.
Other issues[ edit ] Both Bonifacio and Aguinaldo might be considered to have been an inaugural president of an insurgent government.
The government considers Aguinaldo to have been the first President of the Philippines, followed by Quezon and his successors. For instance, the current president, Rodrigo R. Duterte, is considered to be the 16th president.
While the government may consider Aguinaldo as the first president, the First Republic fell under the United States' jurisdiction due to the Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish—American War ; the United States thus does not consider his tenure to have been legitimate.
Quezon is considered to be the first president by the United States. He is also the first to win a popular election and a nationwide election. Laurel giving a speech after his inauguration as President of the Second Philippine Republic As with many other Axis -occupied countries in the Second World War, the Philippines had at one point two presidents heading two governments.We just finished reading this hilarious book about a kid who actually.
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