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A working definition of inclusive education based on literature review is included. In order to successfully implement inclusive education, students, families, teachers, and administrators need diversity training, access to inclusive education strategies or activities, and support systems.
Perspectives, for and against the methods and approaches discussed, are presented.
Inclusive Education Overview Inclusive education is a philosophy that allows for a range of strategies and methods. Direct, classroom-based, community-based, and consultative programming are a few of the available educational options.
The shift to inclusive education has been general and remains a hot topic of debate among educators and researchers. To understand the model of inclusive education, one needs to be familiar with the historical progression of inclusion.
History In the s and s, most children with special needs attended segregated educational programs. Together these social and political groups influenced the design of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of P. This practice did not allow interaction and socialization with "normal" peers.
As a result, the resource room was implemented to allow the individual with a disability to spend part of the day in the resource room with special educators and the other part of the day in the regular classroom engaged in classroom activities.
Professionals and families often cite FAPE as the legal requirement that allows inclusive education. However, families and professionals often misinterpret FAPE as implying inclusive education is mandated by public law.
LRE should be determined on an individual basis. Thus, inclusive education is a philosophy of educating and providing support services to students with disabilities in regular education classrooms, extracurricular activities, and communities.
Philosophy Inclusive education philosophically proposes to include versus exclude individuals with disabilities.
Schools employing inclusive practices report an increase in educational outcomes when all children are viewed as capable of learning. Therefore the belief exists that public schools can simultaneously expand education for all students by improving educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities Johnson, However, the key principle of inclusive education should be that the education of individuals with disabilities should not be synonymous with a place but a practice of providing individualized instruction.
Defining Inclusive Education As stated earlier, a specific definition of inclusive practice does not currently exist.
The available definitions in the literature are dependent on the theoretical perspective of the group using the term. For the purposes of this paper, inclusive education simply means allowing individuals, with or without disabilities, to learn in any environment with the proper support systems.
Overview of Basic Principles From an economic standpoint, inclusive education is proposed as an avenue to control the cost for special education programs by decreasing the need for redundant services and staff.
Controlling costs allows schools to increase accountability to taxpayers for the special education services provided to individuals. Proponents argue individuals with special needs can increase their quality of life, self-esteem, and interactions with normal peer groups when permitted to participate in inclusive educational schools.
Proponents of inclusion, advocate for the principles and practices of: Applications Inclusion should be viewed as an ever-changing process that assists all stakeholders in the provision and identification of appropriate educational services to diverse students. Adopting inclusive education as a philosophy does not guarantee good outcomes.
Diversity training Diversity training refers to understanding the customs, beliefs, values, social systems, and languages or communication styles of specific groups of people Paul, Learn what makes research papers clear and effective, and how to convince your readers that your paper is worth reading and citing.
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(IDEA), which enabled all children, regardless of their mental, physical, or emotional disabilities, access to free and suitable education. Provides immediate help for anyone preparing a biomedical paper by givin specific advice on organizing the components of the paper, effective writing techniques, writing an effective results sections, documentation issues, sentence structure and much more.