Future Climate References Ashley, S. Flood fatalities in the United States. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 47,doi:
Climate changes may impact airplanes, airports, and airstrips, affecting air travel and infrastructure.
Impacts on Air Travel Periods of extreme heat can affect aircraft performance and may cause airplanes to face cargo restrictions, flight delays, and cancellations.
However, warmer weather in winter will reduce the need for airplane de-icing. Storms can force entire airports to close, as occurred along the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina and throughout the Northeast during Hurricane Sandy.
Impacts on Air Transportation Infrastructure In addition to causing closures or delays, flooding may damage facilities, including airstrips. Thirteen of the 47 largest U. Warmer temperatures will thaw permafrost and cause the ground to settle, potentially damaging the foundation and structure of key infrastructure.
Runways and airports may require rebuilding, relocation, or increased maintenance. Impacts on Ships and Sea Lanes Ships are sensitive to many factors, including the depth of a channel and the extent of sea ice.
Increasing temperatures could reduce the amount of sea ice in many important shipping lanes, extending the shipping season.
Warmer winters will likely lead to less snow and ice accumulation on vessels, decks, and rigging in marine transportation. In the Arctic, warmer temperatures could also open up the possibility of a Northwest Passage during portions of the year, which could reduce shipping times and distances.
However, these new passages may also provide a pathway for invasive species transport and survival.
However, higher sea levels will mean lower clearance under waterway bridges. In inland waterways where water levels are expected to decline, as in parts of the Great Lakesships could face weight restrictions, as channels become too shallow.
Flooding could close shipping channels, and increased runoff from extreme precipitation events could cause silt and debris to build up, leading to shallower and less accessible channels. Channels that are not regularly maintained or have a lower capacity to store sedimentation are more vulnerable to abrupt disruptions in service.
More severe storms could also increase disruptions in marine travel and shipping. In areas experiencing increasing drought, water levels could periodically decrease, limiting inland shipping on rivers. NOAALike other coastal infrastructure, harbor facilities, including docks and bridges, may have to be raised and fortified to accommodate higher tides and storm surges as sea levels rise.
The combination of relative sea level rise, land subsidence, and more intense hurricanes and tropical storms could lead to significant disruptions and damage.
Geological Survey, is conducting a detailed case study on the impacts of climate change on transportation systems and infrastructure in the Gulf Coast region.
The first report of this study focused on the impacts of climate change on Gulf Coast transportation systems and infrastructure. The second report released partially in and provides tools and guidance to help state and local transportation planners assess vulnerability and adapt to potential climate impacts.
Transportation and Climate Change: The report recommends that state and local governments, as well as private infrastructure providers, incorporate climate change into long-term improvement plans, design, and operations and maintenance activities. Top of Page References.Discuss the Impacts of Storm Events on the British Isles and evaluate the Responses to them (40 marks).
In October , the worst storm ever to hit the British Isles struck. The Dust Bowl is an environmental disaster that hit the Midwest in the s. A combination of a severe water shortage and harsh farming techniques created it.
Some scientists believe it was the worst drought in North America in years. The lack of rain killed the crops that kept the soil in. Impacts of Hurricanes Hurricanes and tropical storms can cause major damage and loss of life due to the heavy rains, strong winds, and storm surge.
Hurricanes . Discuss the impacts of storm events in the British Isles and evaluate the response to them. (40 marks) A storm that had severe impacts on a vast area of the British Isles is known as the “great storm .
Feb 24, · Examples of the devastating impacts of coastal flood events include the impacts of Hurricane Katrina, which caused deaths in Louisiana and caused $40–50 billion dollars of monetary losses.
It is predicted that it will take up to 8–11 years to reconstruct the urban infrastructure and environment [ 3 ]. Nov 20, · Global Warming: News, Facts, Causes & Effects. Global warming is the term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and its oceans, a .