Olive Japan For information on some of the more prominent olive oil competitions around the world, see the competition list of the Olive Oil Times and the Olive Oil Source.
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Humans differ in their personal microbial cloud. Abstract Dispersal of microbes between humans and the built environment can occur through direct contact with surfaces or through airborne release; the latter mechanism remains poorly understood.
Humans emit upwards of biological particles per hour, and have long been known to transmit pathogens to other individuals and to indoor surfaces. However it has not previously been demonstrated that humans emit a detectible microbial cloud into surrounding indoor air, nor whether such clouds are sufficiently differentiated to allow the identification of individual occupants.
We used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to characterize the airborne bacterial contribution of a single person sitting in a sanitized custom experimental climate chamber. We compared that to air sampled in an adjacent, identical, unoccupied chamber, as well as to supply and exhaust air sources.
Additionally, we assessed microbial communities in settled particles surrounding each occupant, to investigate the potential long-term fate of airborne microbial emissions.
Most occupants could be clearly detected by their airborne bacterial emissions, as well as their contribution to settled particles, within 1.
Bacterial clouds from the occupants were statistically distinct, allowing the identification of some individual occupants. Our results confirm that an occupied space is microbially distinct from an unoccupied one, and demonstrate for the first time that individuals release their own personalized microbial cloud.
Introduction Humans harbor diverse microbial assemblages in and on our bodies HMP Consortium,and these distinctly human-associated bacteria can be readily detected inside of buildings on surfaces, in dust, and as bioaerosols Hospodsky et al.
Human-associated bacteria disperse into and throughout the built environment by three primary mechanisms: Recent studies of built environment microbes have largely focused on direct human contact with surfaces, and demonstrated that people can leave behind bacterial signatures indicative of particular body parts and types of bodily contact Flores et al.
Given the long-term identifiability of the human microbiome Franzosa et al. Bioaerosols airborne biological particles including bacteria and bacteria-laden particles have often been the focus of infection-control studies, but their role in seeding the built environment microbiome is poorly understood.
Research on bioaerosols to date has rarely focused on the direct emission of bioaerosols from human sources, because it is difficult to disentangle direct emission from resuspension of dust observationally Meadow et al.
For instance, several recent studies Hospodsky et al. Additionally, microbes from occupants in a new home can be detected inside the house in a matter of days Lax et al.
An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a . Even an excellent oil can rapidly go rancid when left sitting under a half-bottle of air, or in a hot or brightly-lit conditions. A perceptive look at both the philosophical and the pragmatic aspects of quality in olive oil, and vinegar, sea salt and other things, Mondays between and , in inner SE Portland. Details, location. State of Oregon Department of Environmental Quality Oregon Annual Ambient Criteria Pollutant Air Monitoring Network Plan Submitted to: Environmental Protection Agency, Region
This flux potentially also mediates interactions with other humans and their associated microbiota within dispersal range. Human interactions with non-pathogenic microbes have recently received increased attention for their integral roles in healthy human function HMP Consortium, We are just beginning to understand how these interactions structure the human microbiome, including interactions with indoor bioaerosols and indoor dust Fujimura et al.
It is plausible that direct emission of bacterial cells from an individual results in a detectable human microbiome signal that is traceable to a particular individual, similar to what has been reported after contact with indoor surfaces Fierer et al. Recently emitted bioaerosols potentially represent a distinct microbial source pool if they contain bacterial taxa that are unable to persist in desiccated dust or on surfaces, and therefore might not be otherwise detected.
These recently emitted microbes might also more readily colonize other humans within the built environment than those found on surfaces or in resuspended dust, since recently emitted microbes are more likely to be physiologically active and have not been subjected to prolonged desiccation or UV exposure before colonization can successfully occur.
Oregon drone testing to help determine federal regulations More>> Lents Market in SE Portland robbed at gunpoint Air quality advisory in . Portland air quality index is 32, ranked #10 in Oregon. Historical Portland - OR PM10, PM, TSP, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone information also . Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution. Events (GEO-CAPE) Sensitivity Analysis Experiment. Meemong Lee and Kevin Bowman. National Aeronautics and. Space Administration. regional-scale air quality issues and their impact on global atmospheric composition processes.
In order to understand the human contribution to bioaerosols within built environments, and the extent to which this emitted bioaerosol pool contributes to the residual human-microbial signal detected in indoor dust and on surrounding indoor surfaces, we characterized the airborne bacterial cloud of a person sitting in a sanitized experimental climate chamber Fig.
Background bacterial biomass in the chamber was reduced by a combination of surface disinfection and ventilation control. Over the course of two separate experiments, we used high-throughput DNA sequencing methods to characterize airborne bacterial community composition emitted by 11 different human occupants.
During the first experiment, we compared airborne bacterial assemblages to those detected simultaneously in an identical, adjacent, unoccupied side of the chamber. This was repeated for three different people, each for 4- and 2-hour sampling periods.
To assess the potential for these airborne particles to result in a detectable human microbiome signal as settled dust on surrounding surfaces, we sequenced DNA from settling dishes in each sampling period, and compared those to airborne assemblages. Given that occupants could each be clearly detected and differentiated from one another, we designed a second experiment to further explore the distinguishability of the personal microbial cloud.
Filtered air was supplied through a ceiling plenum, and exhausted through a floor plenum.Sep. 25, — Outdoor air pollution is a major contributor to indoor air pollution -- but high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in the home significantly reduce fine-particulate.
An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a . Sep 22, · Since the objective of the first experiment was to determine the detectability of a single occupant in a cleaned room, we first focused on differentiating occupied air from unoccupied.
Human occupants shed a detectable bacterial cloud. Even an excellent oil can rapidly go rancid when left sitting under a half-bottle of air, or in a hot or brightly-lit conditions.
A perceptive look at both the philosophical and the pragmatic aspects of quality in olive oil, and vinegar, sea salt and other things, Mondays between and , in inner SE Portland. Details, location.
United States Forest Service National Lichens & Air Quality Database and Clearinghouse. Home; Database Queries.
Explanation; Lichen Plot Data; Oregon and Washington was , tons, about 2% of the national total. Although NOx emissions in Oregon, outside of Portland, are expected to remain low, emissions in Washington . An Experiment to Determine the Air Quality in the Region of SE Portland.
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