Salinity describes the salt content of water or soil. When the salt content rises to an extreme, it degrades the water quality and land efficiency. This is the problem that is being faced in Australia; salt levels are becoming so extreme that is affecting plant and animal survival, thus damaging infrastructure.
Environmental problems in Australia Issues with no end in sight In many areas, Australia's temperate zones and coastal ecosystems have been extensively altered, many wetlands have been degraded.
Climate change, and introduced plants and animals invasivesare the agents of the radical changes that are tearing through Australia's environment. Dramatic declines in the distribution and abundance of many species, with natural resources such as water now going scarce.
What is WWF doing about the problems? As a result, saline water draining from such areas can affect downstream or downslope water quality. Moreover, studies in Australia's wet tropics show that soils have limited capacity to recover from deforestation.
This adds to deforestation's price tag. Farmland lies dry and life-less as a result of land clearing and extreme drought conditions. Overgrazing is one of the main pressures on biodiversity in Australia. Grazing and various agricultural improvement strategies have modified vast areas of grasslands and open grassy woodlands.
Moreover, overgrazing promotes desertification and erosion, and is also seen as one cause of the spread of invasive plants. Overfishing and illegal fishing Overfishing has already decreased part of Australia's fish stocks to dangerously low levels.
Two major factors account for this problem; the fact that some areas have low biological productivity and hence fish stocks do not regenerate quicklyalong intensive fishing efforts by commercial and recreational fisheries. In17 of 82 species that were assessed in Australian waters were classified as overfished.
Illegal fishing places further pressure on some species, with patagonian toothfish in the Southern Ocean and shark for fins in northern Australian waters being the worst affected. Introduction of exotic species It is estimated that Australia gains around 20 new pests or diseases each year.
Some well-known examples include cane toads, rabbits, willows and, more recently, black striped mussels and red fire ants. Historically, feral cats, foxes and rabbits have been a cause of local extinctions and significant reductions in range for native species through a combination of habitat modification and predation.
They are a major ongoing problem. Weeds are an equally significant pressure on ecosystems, with more than 2, species of introduced plants now thriving in the wild in Australia. They have invaded every part of the landscape - bushland, rangelands, coasts, rainforests, deserts and farms.
Ballast water from shipping has been responsible for introducing more than species, and possibly as many as species, into Australian waters. Pollution Intensive agriculture is affecting Australia's coasts and oceans, particularly estuaries and environments near the shore.
Modelling predictions estimate that each year almost 19, tonnes of phosphorus andtonnes of nitrogen are discharged to rivers flowing to the coast.
Infrastructure development Of continuing concern for Australia's is continued population growth along the coastline. Global Forest Resources Assessment. FAO Forestry Paper The impact of deforestation and pasture abandonment on soil properties in the wet tropics of Australia.
Geoderma 35—45 On this page:Dec 09, · Salinity is one of the most brutal environmental factors limiting the productivity of crop plants because most of the crop plants are sensitive to salinity caused by high concentrations of salts in the soil, and the area of land affected by it is increasing day by day.
In many areas, Australia's temperate zones and coastal ecosystems have been extensively altered, many wetlands have been degraded. Climate change, and introduced plants and animals (invasives), are the agents of the radical changes that are tearing through Australia's environment.
Extent and costs of salinity in Australia Management. Introduction. Salt is an inherent part of the Australian landscape, occurring naturally in many environments. Enormous stores of salt have accumulated in the soil, groundwater and surface waters through the long-term influence of natural processes.
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Get started now! Major ions in seawater of salinity 35 Chemical composition of seawater. Salinity • Salinity is the amount of dissolved solids in seawater •Used for determining the density of seawater • make research papers more readable to the outside scientific community • be consistent with SI.
Essay on Childhood and Socialisation in Australia - Socialization is the human process of learning to become a member of our society, and how each individual learns to fit into a .